Bio-Digester is a decomposition mechanized toilet system which decomposes Human Excretory Waste in the digester tank using specific high graded bacteria further converting it into methane and water, discharged further to the desired surface.
Bio-digesters are a totally maintenance-free system, which don’t require any sewage system. The inoculums bacteria used in these bio-digester procreate & generate new bacteria in an anaerobic environment & does not require repeat dosing.
Some systems are based on anaerobic biodegradation of organic waste by unique microbial consortium and works at a wide temperature range. The bacterial consortium degrades night soil at temp as low as -20 degree C and produces colourless, odourless and inflammable gas containing 50 – 70% methane.
This bacterial consortium has been made through acclimatization, enrichment and bio-augmentation of cold-active bacteria collected from Antarctica and the other low temperature areas.
The systems are becoming more common, and in the UK they are starting to be considered for modular toilets and Changing Places in more remote locations.
How Does a Bio-Digester Work?
Bio-digesters have three anaerobic chambers that treat human wastes effectively, and don’t require any cleaning or emptying the tank because of its unique systematic structural arrangements.
To start with the very first chamber, where in, the Human wastes arrive from the toilet’s outlet, consequently the solids drop to the bottom of the tank because of the systematic structure of the bio-digester tank and the high graded pre residing bacteria (i.e. anaerobic bacteria, which can survive in the absence of oxygen) rushes for their job (i.e. eating away organic waste and decomposing entire occurring pathogens).
When this chamber is filled, the water overflows to the second chamber where more of the same happens, except at this time most of the biological/solid/sludged matter has been left in the first chamber. When the water overflows into the third chamber, it is almost 90% clean and hence the final stage of digestion takes place.
The treatment, the task of cleansing water is continuously carried forward from the start to the end point, till the water exits the bio-digester. When the treated water finally comes out from the bio-digester and into our irrigation pipelines (optional if required), it is 98% clean and free from entire pathogens.
This water is now safe to be used for underground irrigation via pipes buried below the surface. However, the treated water should not be used for human or animal consumption, or for household cleaning without going through additional treatment.
What are the Advantages of a Bio Toilet?
- It digests organic solids in an ecological way
- It prevents human waste and untreated water from contaminating groundwater
- It offers an alternative to dumping of wastes into rivers, lakes, and fields in rural and semi-rural areas where there are no sewage systems
- The effluent (i.e., the water) can be used to water plants
- The effluent is cleaner, more effective, and easier to use than a septic tank because it doesn’t need to be further cleaned or emptied
- The effluent is odourless, non-obnoxious, colourless as compared to the end products of the toilets being used these days
- It doesn’t require the work and energy involved in relocating composting toilets every year
- Is colourless, odourless, and devoid of any solid particles
- Requires no further treatment / waste management
- Can be used for irrigation purposes